Mango (Mangifera indica)

  • Botanical Name: Mangifera Indica
  • Family: Anacardiaceae
  • Origin: Indo-Burma region
  • Mango seed kernels contain 9.5% protein.
  • Intercropping can be done up to 5-6 years in a mango orchard
  • Viability of stone 30 days
  • The ideal temperature for mango cultivation 24-27°C
  • Mango thrives well in tropical and sub-tropical climates.
  • It can be grown from sea level to an altitude of about 1400 meters.
  • Mango grows in all soils with good depth and drainage except black cotton soils.
  • The optimum PH is 5.5 to 7.0.
  • It cannot tolerate saline conditions.
  • North India mangoes Langra and Dashehari are alternate bearers.
  • Variety
    • Off-Season mango (Fruit maturity: January to February): Niranjan
    • Canning Variety: Alphonso
    • Mutant variety: Rosica


  • Mango is commercially propagated by
    1. Veneer grafting
    2. Approach grafting
    3. Softwood grafting
  • June to Sept/Oct is best for grafting.
  • Polyembryonic seedlings are best in providing uniform rootstocks.
  • Totapuri red small and Olour are dwarfing rootstocks.
  • Mango does not show a significant variation on different rootstocks.

Management of fertilizers

  • FYM: 10kg
  • Bone meal: 2.5 kg
  • Bearing trees may be given
    • N: 750 gm/year/tree.
    • P2O5: 200gm/year/tree.
    • K2O: 700 gm/year/tree.
  • Manures should be applied in a small trench dug from about 1.5-2m from the trunk up to the drip line.
  • Bearing trees should be irrigated regularly at 10-15 days intervals from fruitset to maturity.
  • The plant should be given rest by stopping irrigations at least 2-3 months before flowering for maximum fruit bud development.
  • Pits of 90 x 90 x 90 cm are dug at a spacing of 8-10 M. Pits may be filled with FYM.


  • Planting is done during the rainy season graft union should be kept at least 6 inches above the soil at planting. Staking should be done and watered soon after planting.
  • Weeds can be controlled by the application of 4 kg/ha Atrazine/oxyflurofen (Goal) @ 800ml/ha as pre-emergence and application of 2 liters/ha Gramaxone (Paraquat)/as post-emergence.
  • Mango needs no regular pruning except removing dead and diseased branches.
  • Flower bud formation takes place 2-3 months prior to flowering.
  • Flowering occurs from Nov-Dec to Feb-Mar depending upon locality and variety and continues for about 2-3 weeks.
  • Flowers are polygamous-sex ratio can be improved by the application of NAA 200ppm at flower bud initiation stage.
  • Fruit drop
    • 1. Soon after flower opening
    • 2. After pollination and fertilization
    • 3. At grain stage of the fruit.
  • Drop of grownup fruits is a major problem.

Physiological Disorder

  • Mango malformation
    • Two types of malformation
    • Vegetative malformation
      • Vegetative malformation resembles a “bunchy top” which may dry and die in due course.
    • Floral malformation
      • Floral malformation results in enlargement of flowers with new flowers being produced even after fruit set but with less % of hermaphrodite flowers.
    • Malformation is serious in North than in South.
    • It may result in loss of about 50-60% of the total crop.
    • Krishnabhog, Collecter, Langra, Neelum are tolerant (seedling trees are found to be tolerant)
    • Control measures
      • Application of plant growth regulators and phenolic compounds (NAA,Ethrel,GA, Paclobutrozol, etc.)
      • Deblossoming: at bud brust stage-ethrel
  • Biennial bearing in mango
    • Mango producing good crop one year and no crop or fewer crops in the next year is known as biennial bearing or alternate bearing.
    • This is genetic and inherent in mango varieties.
  • Blacktip
    • A physiological disorder causing distal end of fruit to become black hard
    • Polluted atmosphere with smoke, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, acetylene causes this disorder
    • Spraying Borax 0.6 percent from fruit set at 10-15 days intervals controls this (Punjab, UP, Bihar, W,B)
  • Clustering (Jhumka)
    • Clustering of fruits without growth at the tip of the panicale caused by adverse weather (low temperature) during Feb-March.
    • Most of the fruits drop+shrivel ed and aborted embryos.
  • Spongy tissue
    • Fruit appears normal extremely but contains yellowish, sour spongy tissue inside high temperature, convertive heat and exposing to sunlight after harvest are supposed to be the causes.
  • Soft Nose
    • A physiological disorder caused by Ca deficiency causing a breakdown of flesh towards the apex of the fruit before ripening.

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